The spread of food production from those nine centers of origin followed a striking geographic pattern: The combined effect of the increased population densities supported by agriculture, and of close human proximity to domesticated animals leading to animal diseases infecting humans, resulted in European societies acquiring a much richer collection of dangerous pathogens to which European people had acquired immunity through natural selection see the Black Death and other epidemics during a longer time than was the case for Native American hunter-gatherers and farmers.
Jared in rain forest with Papua New Guineans Voiceover: Arid landscape, Jordanian village site Mohammed Najjar: A second criticism comes from many people of European and Japanese ancestry, who believe that the long-term differences between human societies on different continents are instead due to genetic differences in IQ between different human populations.
For 50 years after Westerners colonized New Guinea, they thought the highland valleys in the interior were uninhabited. Such competition forced the European nations to encourage innovation and avoid technological stagnation.
Why did food production arise in only nine regions? Adoption of Guns, Germs, and Steel in schools. So what was the difference?
Unable to maintain a mobile way of life, they would have stayed close to any source of water they could find, and planted new fields of wheat and barley around them. What separates the haves from the have nots? And of these, the big four livestock animals; cows, pigs, sheep and goats, were native to the Middle East.
Why were zebras not domesticated, despite their apparently being so similar to horses, able to interbreed with horses and donkeys, and locally abundant? The world became colder and drier. At some point during the drought in the Middle East, people started growing their own food.
Kuijt is a co-director of the dig, and works with an international team of archaeologists. In the 16th century, the same crops and animals were taken by Europeans to the New World.
For Diamond, there is no project more urgent facing the world today. Eurasian grains were richer in protein, easier to sow, and easier to store than American maize or tropical bananas.
That may be why zebras have never been harnessed to a plough or ridden into battle. Wheat and barley, sheep and goats, cows and pigs all spread from the Fertile Crescent, east towards India and west towards North Africa and Europe. Jared studying in room Jared Diamond: As for the implication of sexism, Guns, Germs, and Steel contains scarcely any discussion of gender roles, not because they are unimportant in general, but because I know of no evidence that continental differences in gender roles contributed to the continental differences in societal development.
While in his twenties he developed a second, parallel, career in ornithology and ecologyspecialising in New Guinea and nearby islands. There are nearly two million known species of wild animals, but the vast majority has never been farmed.
Despite having some of the most nutritious crops on the planet, its climate was too dry, and its ecology too fragile, to support continuous intensive farming.
The exchange of major epidemic infectious diseases was one-sided, because most of those diseases in the temperate zones came to us humans from diseases of our domestic animals such as cattle, pigs, and chickens with which our ancestors lived in close contact after those animal species had been domesticated.
In their turn, animal dung can be used to provide sort of a fertilizer for the cereal crops as well, the crops, so the whole, the whole package, you know, is seen to be mutually beneficial, both for the animals and the plants and of course for the humans.
Sky, tilt down to village ruins with man walking, Man sowing seed, Goats, Guar site with ruins Voiceover: What you can see here is the outline of a mud wall coming all the way round here, and then inside we have a series of upright stones that have been chipped in such a way where you can see a notch on them, and there would have been a series of beams over the top of that, with a floor across it, and basically you would have had a dry, humidity-controlled environment, where they could take grain, they could take any plants, they could dry them out, put them in here, protect them from insects, protect them from moisture, protect them from water percolating through.
For me, that was the first of dozens of encounters with middle school and high school students reading Guns, Germs, and Steel. In New Guinea and many other parts of the world, people never used ploughs because they never had the animals to pull them.
It is a cautionary book. A few hundred men came to the New World and decimated the native population. Making plaster from limestone was a major technological breakthrough. People plastering walls Mohammed Najjar: When I arrived and stood up in front of the class, my sons were seated in the back row, with grim expressions on their faces.There is no serious, detailed alternative theory to explain why human history unfolded differently on the different continents.
As for the charge of racism, Guns, Germs, and Steel ’s conclusion is that history’s broad pattern has nothing to do with human racial characteristics and everything to do with plant and animal biology.
Voiceover: Jared Diamond’s quest to uncover the roots of inequality began in the rainforests of Papua New Guinea. Jared in rain forest with Papua New Guineans Voiceover: Diamond is a professor.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of Jared Diamond's theory in Guns, Germs, and Steel? 3 educator answers What is Diamond's thesis in Guns, Germs, and Steel? Jared Diamond: How societies can grow old better (TED) Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed at The Earth Institute at Columbia University, April The Evolution of Religions on YouTube at the Center for Religion and Civic Culture, University of Southern CaliforniaAlma mater: Harvard University, Trinity College, Cambridge.
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (also titled Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13, years) is a transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
Jared Diamond’s Collapse traces the fates of societies to their treatment of the environment. By Michael Kavanagh on Feb 9, Diamond tries to distill a unified theory about why societies fail.Download